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Sport Science and Physical Education - آزمون های آمادگی قبلی – تنفسی
 
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انواع مختلفی از آزمون های میدانی وجود دارد که می تواند برای برآورد آمادگی قبلی -  تنفسی استفاده می شود. برای اجرای این آزمون ها به وسایل خاصی نیاز نیست ، در هر جا انجام می شود و می توان از فعالیت های ساده ای مانند راهپیمایی و یا دویدن بهر جست.

 

breath-test-preparation-elmevarzesh

 

در آزمون های میدانی بر اساس سرعت حرکت و مسافت طی شده  به ارزیابی آمادگی قلبی – تنفسی می پردازیم.

در  زیر به برخی از رایج ترین انواع این آزمون ها می پردازیم:

 

1- آزمون ۱۶۰۰ متر

در این آزمون ، شخص مسافت ۱۶۰۰ متر را با حداکثر سرعت راهپیمای می کند و ضربان قلب او را در پایان آزمون اندازه گیری می شود.سپس با استفاده از فرمول زیر حداکثر اکسیژن مصرفی  او برآورده می شود:

 

VO2max1-elmevarzesh

وزن بدن به پوند، سن به سال، برای مرد ضریب یک و برای زن ضریب صفر، زمان بر حسب دقیقه و صدم دقیقه و ضربان بر حسب تعداد در دقیقه است. این فرمول برای  افراد ۲۰ تا ۶۹ سال اعتبار دارد.

۲-آزمون ۲۴۰۰متر دویدن  یا آزمون کوپر

از متداولترین آزمون های میدانی برای ارزیابی آمادگی قلبی تنفسی ، آزمون ۲۴۰۰ متر دویدن یا ۱۲ دقیقه دویدن است که به وسیله کوپر طراحی شده است.در این دو آزمون شخص با حداکثر  سرعت ممکن به مدت ۱۲ دقیقه می دود و یا مسافت ۲۴۰۰ متر را می پیماید.سپس با توجه به فرمول زیر ، حداکثر اکسیژن مصرفی او تعیین می شود:

VO2max = سرعت افقی (متر در دقیقه) ×0/2+3/5

 

برای برآورد حداکثر اکسیژن مصرفی با توجه به مسافت طی شده در آزمون ۱۲ دقیقه ای دویدن ، می توان از فرمول زیر نیز استفاده کرد:

 

کوپر

3- آزمون ۱۵ دقیقه دویدن یا آزمون بالک

آزمون بالک نیز نوع دیگری از آزمون های میدانی برای ارزیابی آمادگی هوازی است.در این آزمون شخص در مدت ۱۵ دقیقه با حداکثر سرعت ممکن می دود و مسافت پیموده شده و یا برآورده حداکثر اکسیژن مصرفی پیموده شده، برای ارزیابی آمادگی هوازی  استفاده می شود( تصویر )

برای برآورد حداکثر اکسیژن مصرفی می توان از فرمول زیر استفاده کرد:

۳/۳۳+[ ۱۷۲/۰× (133 – 15 /مسافت طی شده )] = حداکثر اکسیژن مصرفی

 

آزمون-بالک

 

 

4- آزمون چند مرحله ای رفت و برگشت ۲۰ متر

یکی از آزمون های نسبتا" جدید در ارزیابی قابلیت هوازی که برای بچه  و بزرگسالان معتبر است ، آزمون چند مرحله ای رفت و برگشت ۲۰ متر است که با نام های پیسر ، آزمون لیگر و آزمون بوق نیز شناخته می شود.در این آزمون شخص در یک مسافت ۲۰ تری که با علایمی از جمله خط یا مخروط مشخص شده است، به صورت رفت و برگشت ، می دود.در ابتدا سرعت کم است و سپس مرحله به مرحله افزایش می یابد  تا به حداکثر سرعت برای برآورد حداکثر اکسیژن مصرفی برسد.

سرعت آزمون با صدای بوق از نوار پخش صوت به گوش می رسد، کنترل می شود.آزمودنی باید هنگام به صدا در آمدن بوق ، به یکی از خطوط انتهای یا ابتدایی مسیر ۲۰متر  رسیده باشد.سرعت اولیه ۸/۵ کیلومتر در ساعت است که در هر مرحله ، که یک دقیقه طول می کشد، ۰/۵ کیلومتر در ساعت افزایش می یابد.

صدای بوق ها طوری است که این سرعت را هماهنگ می کند. آزمون زمانی پایان می پذیرد که آزمودنی موفق نشود سه مرتبه متوالی با صدای بوق به خطوط محدود کننده مسیر برسد.زمان آزمون یا تعداد رفت و برگشت ،؛ تعیین کننده میزان آمادگی شخص است . آخرین سرعت به دست آمده در آزمون برای برآورد حداکثر اکسیژن مصرفی استفاده می شود.

فرمول برآورد حداکثر اکسیژن مصرفی به صورت زیر است:

( حداکثر سرعت به دست آمده در آزمون ) ۶ +۴/۲۴ ( بر حسب میلی لیتر در کیلوگرم در دقیقه ) = VO2max





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